Xanax is the trade name of a prescription drug called alprazolam, which is considered a benzodiazepine, a psychoactive. The drug is often called by its different nicknames, including “Bezos,” “Xannies,” “Zannies,” “Handlebars,” “Bars,” and “Blue Footballs.”
Doctors most often prescribe Xanax to patients who are suffering from anxiety and panic disorders. The drug works by binding to specific receptors in the brain, making them less susceptible to stimulation.
The drug is very fast acting, often taking effect within 25 minutes. This means that it doesn't take long for patients to experience relief from their symptoms. Unfortunately, the long term effect of the drug is for patients to build up a tolerance to it, making larger and larger doses necessary to produce the same initial effects.
Virtually anyone can become addicted, especially those who use it recreationally. According to a report issued by the U.S. National Library of Medicine, it can result in an increased tolerance, and eventual addiction and dependence if it is taken in large quantities or used over a prolonged period. Even those who take the medication exactly as prescribed can become addicted without even realizing it.
According to the 2011 Treatment Episode Data Set Report, more than 60,200 people obtained abuse treatment for their addition to Xanax. This is a dramatic increase from the 22,400 people who sought treatment for the same addition in 1998.
It's abuse is not only a problem for adults. Teenagers experience addition issues with this drug as well. According to the 2014 Monitoring the Future survey, 13.9 percent of teenagers report using prescription drugs for non-medical purposes in the past year.
This number includes other prescription drugs as well, it's known to be quite popular as a recreational drug by teens. This study does show some mild declines between 2011 and 2014 across 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students sampled.
Medical Risks of Prolonged Use
Someone who is abusing Xanax will appear excessively tired and lethargic, while lacking the motivation to engage in the normal activities of daily life.
They will show fewer signs of interest in tasks that they enjoyed previously and won't recall details of their previous activities. Other symptoms include the inability of a person to articulate their words.
Abusers will experience withdrawal symptoms when they are not taking the medication. Eventually, their life will revolve around the drug and their ability to maintain their supply. They might start to take other drugs when Xanax cannot be obtained.
Social Risks of Prolonged Abuse
It is common for people with Xanax abuse problems to have signs of it in nearly every aspect of their life, including strained relationships with close friends and family, and even marital problems.
This also includes poor job performance of not showing up at all. It also affects finances due to spending increasing amounts of money on the drug.
Anyone who fears that they might have a problem with Xanax abuse, -or knows someone who does, should call 423-447-2340 to speak with someone who will be able to discuss the inpatient drug treatment options. Because the detox process can be very dangerous, a knowledgeable medical professional should also be consulted.
Our Master's Camp offers Christ based recovery residences for anyone who has completed their primary phase of recovery.
Vicodin is a prescription drug that was originally invented as medication for severe pain. Now, however, it is used to treat moderate pain as well. As a result, it is frequently available in most medical cabinets. Being a pain killer, it also leaves the user feeling euphoric for some time. Due to its easy availability, and the feel-good effects, this has become a choice drug of abuse among teens.
According to narconon.org, one in 5 high schoolers has used this drug. The National Institute on Drug Abuse has stated that one in twelve teenagers has admitted to using it for non-medical purposes.
In recent years, it is believed that the drug is over-prescribed, while its distribution isn't strongly regulated, unlike many other prescription drugs.
To add to this, it has a strong potential for addiction, creating the perfect scenario for Vicodin abuse. After all, one can develop an addiction in as little as a week.
Medical Effects of Vicodin Addiction
While Vicodin comes with a range of short term effects, including drowsiness, anxiety, mood swings, constipation, and many more, it also comes with a whole range of long term effects. This primarily includes addiction. The euphoria caused by the drug often gets the users hooked.
However, abuse leads to a whole host of new medical problems including a slow heartbeat, lightheadedness, seizures, nausea, convulsions, vomiting, constricted pupils, blurry vision, headache, ringing ears, and even constipation. It may also lead to confusion and fear from time to time.
But while the medical symptoms are among the least desirable, the drug is also known to change people. Addiction, after all, can cause a person to become desperate. It can therefore cause someone to take extreme actions in order to fulfill their addiction.
This can and often includes breaking the law as well as hurting those they love.
As a result, it transforms a person completely, making them unrecognizable to their loved ones. It is through the abuse of such a drug that their previous position in society crumbles to dust. However, the addicted may continue along this path in fear of suffering from withdrawal symptoms. But this isn't the only way out.
How to Get Help for Vicodin Addiction
Help is available for those suffering from Vicodin abuse. A drug addiction rehab center will attack your addiction in phases.
The first steps normally include a medically supervised process of detoxification. A non-addictive vicodin substitute is used during this time to alleviate withdrawal symptoms with releasing the user from the shackles of addiction.
Following this, intensive therapy will be employed for several weeks.
Patients will be made to face the issues that led to the addiction in the first place. Alternatives will be searched for so as to prevent a relapse if similar situations arise.
Any emotional and psychological issues that may have contributed to the addiction will also be addressed during this period, thereby tacking the problem from its very roots.
After care will be extended to ensure the prevention of a relapse in the future.
Suboxone, which is administered to alleviate opiate addiction, is a mixture of two drugs. These are Naloxone and Buprenorphine. Naloxone belongs to a group of drugs known as opioid antagonists while Buprenorphine belongs to the group of prescriptions known as partial opioid agonists. Suboxone helps to reduce the chances of the occurrence of withdrawal symptoms when a person ceases taking opiate drugs. Common street names or street terms for Suboxone are Bupe, Saboxin, Sobos, Sub, Oranges, Stops, and Boxes, among others.
Although it was originally considered to be harmless, Suboxone is now susceptible to abuse. The prescription is designed to be taken by placing the pills underneath the mouth. The user then allows time for it to dissolve. On the other hand, it can be abused by constantly chewing the pills or injecting a dissolved solution. Users may conversely abuse the drug by increasing their prescribed dosage without the instruction of a health care provider. It is also said to be abused when it is taken without a valid prescription from the health care provider.
Although safety precautions have been put in place, Suboxone addiction has been reported across the United States. According to the Baltimore Sun, over 170,000 people undergo Suboxone treatment each day. Abuse of the drug is followed by a dependence which subsequently leads to an addiction. An addicted person needs to undergo a good quality treatment program so as to help him/her to cease using the drugs.
According to the FDA, the side effects of Suboxone addiction can be serious and even fatal. The medical risks associated with Suboxone addiction include tolerance, dependence, potentiating and constipation. Others are flu, insomnia, stomach upsets, stress, fatigue, depression, and light-headedness, to mention but a few.
Often, addicts may find that unintentional use of Suboxone results in problems like paranoia, forgetfulness, relationship problems, and changes on their mood, but they continue using or overusing the drug without considering the consequences. This is a clear sign of Suboxone abuse.
Three possible treatments for Suboxone abuse are administration of a neutralizing drug narcotic antagonist, stomach pumping and use of a laxative.
To get proper treatment, the health care provider has to know the amount of Suboxone that has been taken on a daily basis. They also need to know whether it was used in combination with other drugs or alcohol. It is better to instigate treatment early.
Each of the 3 treatments offers facilities that are unique. Patients have to make up their mind on the length they want to reach with their chosen respective residential treatment programs.
Once detox program is completed, there is a very big advantage if ceasing the use of the drug as well. All addiction is not entirely physical. There are many addiction that cause psychological effects. The user may not understand that there is a big problem and may return back to abusing the drug if the appropriate action is not taken to help them cope with the consequences.
Rehab centers offer a proper basis for the patients to return to the community and enjoy the rewards of a sober life. Counseling the patient ensures that they understand the cautionary signs of reversing to the drugs and thus, they may avoid abusing the drug again.
Prescription drug abuse often starts due to an ignorance of their highly addictive nature and a lack of taking them as prescribed. It often starts in a persons teenage years or young adult years because many young people don't understand that abusing these types of substances can quickly become as bad or even worst then street drugs.
Some of the more highly addictive medicinal substances that carry a high potential for abuse includes opiate painkillers such as hydrocodone, depressants such as Vicodin and stimulants such as Ritalin and Adderall.
These drugs can be abused and become addictive to even patients who have legitimate prescription from the physician.
History of prescription drug abuse and addiction
Prescription drug addiction dates back many years when people used to abuse laudanum (mixture of alcohol and opium).
Normally, this drug was a remedy for diarrhea, coughing, anxiety, sleeplessness and pain. It reached the addictive stage when women who had problems with emotional issues, menstrual cramps, pregnancy and childbirth could seek for an addictive substance from doctors and get it, as they were not allowed to be seen in bars drinking.
Then came morphine, which was used as a painkiller by American civil war fighters in 1827. It was addictive, but this was overlooked.The addiction from morphine was to be counteracted by the use of heroine.
In those days, most of these drugs were under patent law protection, so their ingredients remained secret despite them being addictive.
Since taking these kind of drugs was allowed, people did not care about the potency or frequency of drugs, never minded exceeding the recommended instructions, and this resulted in them becoming a drug addict.
Their bodies become tolerant to these drugs and hence they had to take a higher dosage to feel the desired results.
Statistics of prescription drug addiction
According to a survey in USA, the biggest percentage of deaths from drug overdose is due to prescription drug addiction. In 2005 their were 22400 drug overdose deaths in the USA, of which 38.2% were as a result of opioid painkillers overdose.
According to Drug Enforcement Administration, in the US in 2007, more than a thousand people died of the abuse of fentanyl, a painkiller.
Medical risks of prolonged prescription drugs abuse
The set of risks one faces from prolonged abuse of prescription medicines can differ from one drug to another, but across the board, here are some of the risks.
Drug tolerance, making one need more and more of a drug to feel its effects, hence drug dependence.
Damage and failure of such organs as liver and kidney.
Psychological cravings and addiction.
Decreased cognitive function.
Mental health symptoms such as depression and paranoia
Withdrawal symptoms in the absence of the drug. Such symptoms include: nausea, vomiting, insomnia, sweating, shaking, nervousness, depression and uncontrolled leg movement.
Accidents can occur when the drugs interfere with your driving by causing impaired thinking and judgment.
Poor performance in school whereby the once mood changer and anxiety chaser drugs becomes addictive and gives you opposite results.
Stealing prescriptions from friends and family whenever one needs’ to fulfill the desired results.
Dropping out of school due the frustrations resulting from drug abuse and poor academic performance.
Poor performance at job and hence loss of the job.
Putting you in legal troubles. For example being jailed for misusing drugs since it is illegal. The abuse of drugs can also increase the likelihood of committing crimes.
Treatment of prescription drug addiction
Addiction to any illicit or prescribed drugs can be treated effectively, according to proven studies. Once the abused drug and the individual’s needs have been evaluated, treatment may incorporate components such as detoxification, counselling and addiction medicines, usually administered at drug and alcohol rehabs.
Patients of drug addiction may be helped to make a full recovery through behavioral or/and pharmacological treatment.
Behavioral treatments aim at stopping drug abuse and teaching the body to function without drugs, stop cravings, avoid situations luring to drug abuse and handle a relapse if it occurs. Behavioral treatments could involve; individual and family counselling, cognitive therapies and contingency management for smooth recovery.
Pharmacological treatments aim at counteracting the effects of the drug on the brain, which help a lot with withdrawal symptoms.
For the best results, it is important that a patient gets a combined treatment approach whereby both behavioral and pharmacological treatments are applied.
Percocet might seem like a harmless painkiller on the surface, but it's not anything on the level of Aspirin or Advil. It's meant for short-term management of severe pain and requires a repeat visit to a physician before each refill. However, it is possible to build up both tolerance and dependence on percocet and dependence on painkillers like percocet leads to 100,000 visits to the emergency room every year.
Most addictions to Percocet do start out as a way to treat pain. However, this drug does not address the root causes of the pain, which can lead to taking more than the recommended amount as the patient builds up tolerance.
Emergency room visits involving painkillers involve an overdose that could have been solved if the source of the pain could be tracked down and treated. Emotional disorders and mental trauma may also be factors in addiction to Percocet.
Signs of an addiction include irritability and mood swings, an obsession with maintaining the supply that can lead to illegal activities.
An addict may hop from doctor to doctor with the excuse that they're trying to find out what's actually causing the pain that they originally needed the Percocet for.
Long-term effects can include liver and kidney failure, respiratory failure, gastrointestinal problems and possibly even death from overdose. Some of the negative effects of addiction, including kidney and liver failure, are actually caused by the high levels of acetaminophen that Percocet contains.
Addiction to percocet can also lead to social consequences like strained relationships with loved ones, increased isolation and a lack of desire to participate in social activities that the addicted person used to enjoy.
Addicts may feel like they have no control over their lives and may be prone to anxiety and panic attacks or irrational behavior that could cause them to push away their friends and family.
Medical Risks of Prolonged Percocet Abuse
For these reasons, treatment should be sought as soon as possible. The withdrawal is unpleasant (flu-like symptoms, paranoia, and panic attacks being common) but usually only lasts a few days unless the addiction was a severe one and should be accomplished under the care of a doctor who can watch for complications.
The doctor might prescribe drugs like Chlodinine and Naloxone to alleviate the worst of the symptoms. A drug rehabilitation program can help eliminate the physical and psychological factors involved in the addiction.
Percocet Addiciton Treatment Options
The best way to avoid addiction to painkillers like Percocet is to deal with the root causes of severe pain. For this reason, your doctor should not try to blow off your concerns about long-term use of painkillers and help you diagnose and treat the condition that may be causing the pain.
However, once addiction has set in, it is recommended that you detox medically and search residential treatment centers for help.
This way, you have less chance of crossing the line between using Percocet to deal with the pain and becoming dependent on this painkiller.
Painkillers are essentially synthetic or man-made opiates which mimic the body's own natural pain relievers. What they do is impinge on the nervous system’s transmission of the nerve signals we perceive as pain. Furthermore, painkillers also evoke a short-lived euphoria by stimulating portions of the brain associated with pleasure. Therefore, besides blocking pain, they also induce a “high.”
Ideally, painkillers should be used to treat post-surgical pain, migraines, injuries other medical conditions where chronic pain is an issue. Addictions form when you take painkillers without a prescription to ‘get high' or for other recreational purposes. There are also instances where somebody who is in chronic pain finds themselves needing higher and higher doses either because their pain keeps getting worse or their bodies have built up a tolerance to the drug.
Like all drugs, painkillers do not necessarily “cure” anything. They simply mask the pain for which they are taken. Someone steadily trying to alleviate the pain may find themselves taking higher and higher doses—only to realize that they cannot make it through the day without the drug. Physiological dependence occurs as the body becomes accustomed to the presence of the substance.
History of Prescription Drug Abuse
Opiates, originally extracted from the opium poppy, have been around for quite a while. We're talking thousands of years of both medicinal and recreational use. As a matter of fact, morphine is the most active component in opium.
Morphine is named after the Greek god of dreams, Morpheus. Morphine (extracted from opium in pure form) was extensively used as a painkiller during the American Civil War, leading to many soldiers becoming addicted.
Fast forward to the latter years of the 20th century and illegal opium trade is booming. South-East Asia in particular is producing 2500 tons of opium a year! Being the capitalist society that we are, the FDA approved the introduction of new painkillers into the market: Vicodin(1984), OxyContin(1995) and Percocet (1999) – heralding the onset of the prescription pill menace.
Basic economics teaches us that whenever there's demand, there's bound to be a supplier. Prescription pills are now being sold on the streets by common drug peddlers. Addicts, on the other hand, are going to great lengths to secure them. Top of the list: stealing from family and friends, forging prescriptions, “doctor-shopping” (hopping from one unsuspecting doctor/pharmacy to another) and even armed robberies of pharmacies.
The most commonly abused painkillers are ritalin, oxycodone (which goes by the brand names OxyContin® or Percocet®) and hydrocodone ( with vicodin as its most popular brand name). Oxycodone goes by several slang names, among them: ‘Oxy', ‘Cotton' & ‘Percs'. Hydrocodone, on the other hand, goes by ‘Vikes' or ‘Vikings'. OxyContin is popularly known as “hillbilly heroin” due to its abuse in predominantly Appalachian communities.
Painkillers can be ingested in a variety of ways which guarantee a stronger “high” than they would when swallowed – smoking, snorting and even injections. The reaction might be stronger but it comes at a tremendous cost to the user's health.
The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) speculates that up to 7% of patients who are prescribed opioid medication to treat chronic pain will become addicted.
Prescription painkiller abuse is increasing in the US. In 2007, 2.5 million people in the US experimented with prescription medication for the first time… compare that with the figure for marijuana which stands at 2.1 million. In the same year, 10% of high school students admitted to using prescription painkillers for non-medical purposes. Non-medical use of prescription medication rose to 12% that year.
A frightening statistic: Individuals in the US who abuse prescription painkillers are 19 times more likely than others in the same age bracket to begin abusing heroin.
Medical Risk of Prolonged Abuse of Prescription Drugs
Prolonged abuse of painkillers can impact negatively the user's physical and mental health, especially as systems are altered to assimilate the drug. Below are some of the consequences.
Respiratory collapse/ depression
Possibility of infection (from needles)
Cardiovascular problems (increased risk of a heart attack)
Diminished mental function
Mood swings and erratic behaviour
Paranoia and a heightened sense of fear.
A distorted perception of reality
Low self esteem
Anxiety attacks and episodes of depression
Hostility, rage and (often unprovoked) anger.
Confusion and disorientation.
A diminished ability to perform social roles e.g. parenting.
Withdrawal and isolation from loved ones.
Reduced participation or a loss of interest in activities once enjoyed.
Strained relationships with family and friends e.g. due to stealing
Because of the potentially unpleasant withdrawal symptoms, a drug and alcohol rehabilitation center is the best bet for individuals attempting to detox from prescription painkillers. Once detox is complete, entering an inpatient or outpatient treatment program is a powerful next step.
Oxycontin, which is the brand name for the medication oxycodone, is a powerful painkiller that is prescribed to those who are struggling with moderate or severe aches or pains. It greatly aids those who suffer from chronic pains that can be a result of cancer, burns, heart attacks, or bone pains. This drug provides patients with hours of pain relief.
It's very similar to heroin because it stimulates the reward center of the brain producing a euphoric high. It is only available through a prescription from a physician for pain relief and is a narcotic. Despite this, Oxycontin is often sold on the street by names such as; cotton, kickers, pills, oxycotton, heroin hillbilly, orange county, ox, oCs, and os.
People started abusing Oxycontin almost as soon as it hit the market. The way that this drug abuse has been tracked is by accounting for the number of injuries attributed to Oxycontin. Patients would take much high does than they were recommended to, and would crush, snort, or inject the powder. These methods of consuming the drug can result in an overdose fairly quickly.
According to the National Drug Intelligence center, the death rates caused by this drug have been going up ever since the drug was released. According to the US Department of Justice, there are more than 13 million individuals who abuse this drug and use is for recreational purposes.
In New York alone, it was reported that there was an 82% rise in prescriptions for Oxycontin from 2007 to 2010. This shows that Oxycontin addictions and abuse of the drug continues to be a growing problem throughout the country.
In 2010, a new formulation of Oxycontin was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. The new pills contain certain ingredients that make it much harder for anyone to chew, crush, or break the tablet.
Although this was done in order to reduce the amount of people who abuse the drug, and addict may compensate by taking more pills in order to cope with their addiction which can pose as a serious threat.
Medical Risk of Oxycontin Abuse
Abusing Oxycontin can result in many medical as well as social risks. Some medical risks include; irregular breathing, liver damage, seizures, respiratory failure, myocardial infarction, coma, or even death.
The types of drug problems vary from person to person, but it has been shown that it is not too hard to unintentional overdose on the drug. Some social risks include; divorce, child or domestic abuse, job loss, homelessness, or loss of close relationships.
One of the best ways to get help from this addiction is through a rehab center with medical monitoring. You will go through a detox process and will be provided with guidance and counseling every step of the way.
Withdrawing from this drug unfortunately results in many unpleasant side effects which can include; depression, anxiety, vomiting and nauseas, flu like symptoms, weakness, insomnia, chills and sweating, fever, panic attacks, and muscle and bone pain.
These severe symptoms are why getting help at a rehab center would be best as opposed to trying to do this by yourself. Finding a clinic that specializes in opiate abuse would be a great way to get over this life threatening addiction.
The Opioids prescription drugs are part of three main categories of prescription medication that have a high recognized risk of abuse. The other two categories include central nervous system depressants and stimulants.
What are Opioids?
The Opioids are well-known in history for their usage as painkillers. Taken as prescribed, they can dull the pain of those ill or injure. This is the reason why this therapeutic drug usage is among the oldest known in the world.
This group of drugs is derived from the opium poppy plant and it is an analgesic that causes a decrease in the perception of pain and also allows the sufferers to develop tolerance to the pain that they are experiencing.
It includes the well-known opium, codeine, heroin and morphine. Opium appears as dark chunks or a powder that can be smoked or eaten. Heroin (also known by the nicknames of “junk” or “smack”) is a white powder that can be dissolved in water and injected. Other opioids come in various forms, such as tablets, capsules, solutions or syrups.
Besides being effective painkillers, they are also very addictive, leading to physical and psychic dependencies and addictions.
Opioids History and Popularization
The first people in history that have been identified to cultivate the poppy plant were the Sumerians in Mesopotamia, around the year 3400 BC. It spread throughout all major civilizations and it was initially used to treat pain and other ailments. By the year 1986, the poppy plant was also called the “joy plant”.
During the nineteenth century, the development of the medicine also started a larger negative impact on the individuals and society, due to drug abuse and addiction.
Also, during the twentieth century, the use of opioids for chronic pain started to increase, showing a yearly substantial rise that continues today, especially for hydrocodone and oxycodone.
Opioids Usage Statistics
To sustain these statements, according to the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), it is estimated that over 26.4 million people make abuse of opioids worldwide. Also, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), over 2.1 million people in the United States needed treatment for prescription Opioids painkillers in 2014.
Opioids Addiction And Medical Risks Of Prolonged Abuse
It is important to realize that prolonged usage of Opioids leads to increased tolerance. This is the reason why larger doses need to be taken in order to achieve the same levels of euphoria. After a sudden withdrawal, the effects of Opioids fade within about 10 days, but the individual will continue to feel weakness, or loss of well-being, for several more months.
The physical effects of Opioids addiction include slower heart rate and brain activity, loss of sexual desire, of appetite and thirst, an increased tolerance of the body to pain, or even infertility.
Furthermore, other complications of abuse include diseases such as Tetanus, AIDS or Hepatitis. These are the results of injections with dirty needles or/and impure drugs that can be found in the streets.
Along with the negative impact on the body, the user also has to fight with the effects of psychological dependence and powerful craving for the narcotics.
Social Risks Of Opioids Addiction
Opioids addiction also has negative consequences for the entire society. It is said that the Opioids Use Disorder is associated with a criminal behavior, including severe crimes such as drug dealing, theft or prostitution.
This disorder can also lead to marital abuse, loss of family, child abuse or neglect, poverty, unemployment and even homelessness.
Treatment Approaches For Opioids Addiction
This type of drug dependence very complex because it includes physical, mental, environmental and social factors. This is the reason why a treatment plan should include at least 3 major components.
These include detoxification or a supervised withdrawal from the drugs. This is done in combination with other medication. During this therapy, people may suffer from hallucinations, confusion, anxiety, tremors, sleep disorders and body pain.
Milder prescription Opioids may also help to slowly lower the dose of drugs. This is known as replacement therapy.
Users can also benefit from successful substance abuse treatment therapies provided by treatment facilities. The long-term treatment programs, including support groups, vocational rehab or behavioral therapy are considered to be among the most effective approaches to Opioids addiction.
Opiates refers to an entire group of drugs which are used to treat pain. They are derived from opium which is procured from the poppy plant. While other terms such as opioids and narcotics are used as substitutes, opiates commonly refers to merphine, herine, and codine – all close relatives. Opioids, on the other hand, can refer to synthetic opiates such as oxycontin. Since opiates refers to an entire class of drugs, both legal and illegal, they each go by a variety of nicknames. These are commonly employed by those involved in the illegal use of the drugs.
History of Opiate
Most opiates have been used legally to treat pain. However, users frequently become resistant to certain dosages, requiring more to produce the same effect.
Moreover, these also elicit euphoria. Combine this with their high capacity for addiction, and it is no wonder that opiates are widely abused. Many of those who have been prescribed this drug go on to become addicted to it.
In fact, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, nearly 4.2 million Americans reported using heroin at least once. Furthermore, according to the data collected on addiction.com, as of 2010, over twelve million Americans have reported using pain medication for non-medical purposes at least once as well.
Medical Risks of Prolonged Opiate Abuse
Opiates pose a legitimate danger to the life and well-being of their users when abused. While its side-effects include euphoria – the reason for the addiction – there are many others that aren't equally enviable.
These are respiratory depression, constricted pupils, itching, nausea, vomiting, slurred speech, confusion, and constipation. However the most terrifying symptom of opiate abuse is analgesia, or the inability to feel pain.
Moreover, since the body develops a resistance to the drug, an increased dosage is required over time to feel the same high. This places the user in danger of opiate overdose, and consequently death, if they aren't treated in time.
Social Risks of Opiate Use
Since it is the euphoria that gets an individual hooked on, the addicted develops an obsession with the high. This has led many to go to extremes to procure the required quantity of opiates. Teens and drugs have a history with this addiction. This quantity increases with time, driving the user to try everything within their means and beyond, increasing chances of risky behaviors such as criminal activities.
Most addicts also leave their previous group of friends in favor of a group of addicts. This makes it easier for them to access the drug as well. Opiate addiction can, therefore, turn an individual's life upside down. It rearranges their priorities for the worse, and can destroy a good future.
However, this isn't the end. Drug intervention will be requiered, and there are multiple treatment options are available. The first step, here, is detoxification. Substitutes are prescribed by qualified physicians to help your body wean off the opiates while preventing the withdrawal symptoms.
But relapse after a simple detox is fairly common since many of the psychological factors and circumstances that led to the addiction continue to persist. For this reason, the detoxification process is often followed by intense therapy session that address the core issues.
However, it doesn't always have to be rehab that cures an individual. 12-step programs such as Narcotics Anonymous have also proved quite helpful. These ensure an encouraging environment conducive of weaning an individual off the drugs. However, since it is a long term process, consistent support and out-patient care is vital to prevent relapse.
Norco is a controlled substance that is typically prescribed by doctors to patients experiencing moderate to severe pain. It is also referred to as acetaminophen and hydrocodone bitartrate.
Norco is a drug with a high potential for abuse and dependence when used incorrectly. Dependence to Norco can be physical or psychological. A physical dependence develops when the drug creates a chemical in the body that causes the body to redefine pain that is needed to trigger drug use. A psychological dependence occurs when a person thinks that he or she must use the drug to function properly.
History of Norco
In August 2014, DEA published a ruling that moved Norco from Schedule III to Schedule II mostly due to the increased cases of abuse and addiction. Nevertheless, although it is a controlled medication, there are many people taking it making it one of the most popular street drugs. This is because it is easily obtainable compared to other addictive drugs in Schedule II as it is legal. The overuse and misuse of the drug can result in severe side effects.
According to Norco statics, the misuse and abuse of the drug costs American citizens over $484 billion annually, which includes healthcare costs, lost wages, traffic accidents and justice costs.
Furthermore, an approximately 10 to 22 percent of accidents are caused by people using the drug according to the National Highway Traffic Safety report. The abuse of Norco is also highly linked to major crimes in the USA. A considerable number of people involved in violent crimes are found to be under influence of Norco.
Medical Risks of Prolonged Norco Abuse
It is important to remember that Norco is a highly addictive drug that can result in severe side effects. The actual side effects can vary among users but includes drowsiness, tinnitus, mood swings, nausea, headache, dry mouth, anxiety, dizziness and blurred vision.
There is also a greater chance of developing other complications such as lack of appetite and jaundice, which can lead to eating disorders, itching, colored stool and dark urine.
Overuse of Norco can also cause serious liver damage. The high level of abuse is attributed to the euphoric feeling that occurs when a person takes the drug, which makes people continue using the drug even when it is not necessary.
Social Risks of Norco Use
It is important to understand that a person can develop dependence after only a few weeks even under the care of a doctor. Unfortunately, it is not always easy to tell whether a person is becoming dependence on the drug.
However, looking for the following signs can help. You may be developing dependence if you are taking the drug more than prescribed or in larger doses. Furthermore, you may be developing dependence if you are crushing the pill first before taking, asking doctors for more pills and or taking it with other pills.
Other signs that you may be developing substance use dependence include secluded behavior, stealing, dishonest behavior, changes in social circles and unexplained change in behavior or mood.
The first step is to always speak with your doctor if you notice the signs of dependence. You should not try to overcome the symptoms of Norco addiction on your own. Instead, you should enroll in best drug rehabilitation that suits your needs. The symptoms of withdrawal can be severe. They can range from diarrhea to stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting and craving for pills among others.
The most common illegal narcotic for recreation reasons is heroin, but all prescription narcotics have the potential for abuse. Opioids (or opiates) in particular may cause addiction after prolonged use, and many opioid painkillers used to treat pain such as Vicodin, Percocet, Duragesic and OxyContin are in fact much more dangerous and more used than heroin itself.
Narcotics are normally used to treat pain, but people do also use them for recreational uses, as they give a subjective sensation of euphoria or an intoxicating “high”. Heroin in particular can simulate a very powerful orgasm sensation followed by relaxation and then sedation or sleep.
History of Narcotics
Usually people that do take narcotics to treat pain do not became addicts, although if used to treat chronic conditions in due time patients will start developing tolerance. This mean that they need to increase dose, which in turn, can trigger a vicious circle that can lead them to addiction and abuse. Heroin trafficking is still one of the biggest drug markets worldwide, and although it is the most dangerous, life-threatening drugs around, it is still today the most used illicit substances especially in prison settings.
Heroin use is steadily increasing, as well as the deaths caused by this drug. Data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that heroin use increased 63% between 2002 and 2013, with an estimated 517,000 people who used them in just 2013 (+150% compared to 2007).
More than 8,200 people died of heroin-related overdose in 2013, according to national surveys published in the CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, more than four times than the numbers reported in 2007.
Although other narcotics present a less immediate threat to people’s lives than heroin, data is however no less alarming.
Medical Risks of Prolonged Narcotics Abuse
In 2009, data from theNSDUH showed that over 16 million Americans people aged 12 and older uses the drug for nonmedical purposes once in a year, with almost 23,000 individuals engaged in recreational use of Vicodin.
Heroin and narcotics are life-threatening drugs that can cause a patient’s death. As they cause respiratory depression, an overdose (called OD) can have fatal consequences. Other long-term effects include constipation, light intolerance, cardiovascular disorders and intense withdrawal symptoms.
Social Risks of Narcotics Use
Heroin and narcotics are highly addictive drugs. Due to the extreme harshness of the withdrawal symptoms, the addicted patient is always craving for a dose to get “base”. Also, narcotics and heroin can be very expensive and can lead the addicted into abject poverty condition or damage his own family well-being. Paranoia and depression are often associated with these drugs’s abuse.
Several social support programs that help patients get help in narcotics withdrawal do exist, and usually emphasize on abstaining from all narcotics and other drugs use. Several detoxification programs such as Narcotics Anonymous are available, and they have shown to be effective in reducing a person's risk of returning to drug abuse. Family support for long-term treatment is also often available.
Methamphetamine is an odorless, white and bitter crystalline powder that can easily be dissolved in water or alcohol. Due to the fact that it can enter the bloodstream faster, by injecting it, this drug is very potent, long-lasting and with much more harmful effects on the nervous system, in comparison to other similar narcotics.
Methamphetamine is known under various knick names, such as speed or chalk. When one refers to the crystal form inhaled by smoking, the knick names are crystal, ice, glass or tina.
It is important to know that medical methamphetamine is named Desoxyn and it is prescribed in low doses for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other similar conditions.
Methamphetamine History and Popularization
The drug that was first produced in Germany, in 1887, was initially called amphetamine. Starting with the year 1919 the drug called methamphetamine was developed in Japan. It was actually easier to produce because of its water-soluble characteristics. But the usage of the drug became prominent during World War II.
It was specifically administered to keep troops alert. After the war, these drug supplies spread through Japan. But people were not actually concerned about addiction or treatment and were ignoring all the side effects.
Nowadays, methamphetamine is primarily produced in laboratories in Mexico, Canada, and Southeast Asia, and it is sold around the world because of the profit it can bring to drug dealers.
According to the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), over 1.2 million people used at least once this narcotic during the year.
Also, according to the Substance Abuse and Medical Health Services Administration’s on Drug Abuse, over 23.5 million people needed treatment for methamphetamine in 2014.
Learn About Methamphetamine Addiction And Medical Risks Of Prolonged Abuse
Long-term drug abuse have many negative consequences, including addiction or compulsive drug seeking and usage. The tolerance to the pleasurable effects of the substance develops when it is taken repeatedly.
The numerous initial risks involved with drug abuse include anxiety, confusion, depression, insomnia, tooth decay or hair loss.
Moreover, prolonged usage leads to severe psychotic symptoms that include paranoia, hallucinations, delusions and violent behavior. These symptoms may last for several months after the person has quit using the drug.
Other significant risks are impaired verbal learning and reduced motor speed, emotional and cognitive breakdown, organ failure and strokes.
Therefore, it is important to know that this drug affects the mind and also the human body.
Social Risks of Methamphetamine Use
Drug abuse and addiction also have a negative impact for the society, including factors such as productivity, health, and crime-related costs.
To be more specific, the usage of methamphetamine will finally lead to severe social consequences, such as loss of employment, failure in school, domestic violence, child abuse and family disintegration.
Treatment Approaches To Methamphetamine Addiction
Due to the fact that methamphetamine abuse affects each aspect of a person’s life, the treatment is not an easy one. Subsequently, an effective drug rehab program includes various components, each one directed towards a particular issue and its negative results.
It is important to learn about methamphetamine addiction and to know that an effective treatment is one tailored according to the needs of each individual. Before beginning a recovery, the person has to acknowledge the problematic behavior. There are various cognitive therapies that offer support and help in the rehabilitation process.
Also, methamphetamine treatment centers will provide a successful and significantly longer treatment and will help each person to choose the right path for positive results.
Please visit alcohol treatment programs if you are struggling with alcoholism.
Methadone is a drug commonly used to treat addiction caused by other drugs such as hydromorphone, oxycodone and heroin. It is an opioid drug that is known by street names that include meth and juice.
Methadone is a synthetic drug manufactured by a German company. It was initially known as Dolophine and was used as a painkiller for severe pain. Although, the drug is still sporadically used as a painkiller, it is now primarily used as a treatment drug for narcotic addiction. This is because its effect lasts longer than most morphine-based drugs, which eliminates the need for regularly administration.
Methadone is also used to treat pregnant women in order to protect fetus but its use is accompanied by short-acting opioids to avoid withdrawal, which can cause miscarriage. It is also used to treat people using opioid drugs who also suffer from hepatitis C or HIV to avoid spreading infection.
Brief Methadone History
It was developed in 1939 by a Germany company and later introduced in the United States in 1947 by Eli Lilly. Its initial name Dolophine was derived from Latin words dolor and finis meaning pain and end respectively. However, the drug was later deemed dangerous and not as effective as other painkiller drugs such as Morphine.
Nevertheless, in 1960s, the drug began to be marketed as a treatment for heroin addiction. Unfortunately, Methadone creates a strong addiction that results in painful withdrawal symptoms that prompt users to continue using the drug to their detriment.
Medical and social risks to prolonged use of Methadone
Despite the side effects of methadone, a report entitled methadone-Associated Overdose death in March 2009 highlighted the growth of Methadone from 531,000 in 1998 to about 4.1 million in 2006.
Furthermore, according to CDC, methadone causes almost a third of all opioid related deaths. Of almost 4000 deaths in 2004, 82 percent of the deaths were due to accidental use and 3 percent were caused by combining methadone with other drugs, which necessitates the need to learn about methadone addiction.
The continued use of Methadone can result in dependence. Some of the symptoms that a person with dependence will exhibit include drowsiness, slowed breathing, facial flushing, urinary retention, irregular heartbeat, tremors, seizures, weakness, lightheadedness and dry mouth.
Social Risks of Methadone Use
The side effects of methadone include physical, psychological and social. The physical effects include sexual impotence, gastrointestinal distress, depressed respiratory function, anaphylactic reactions and death caused by accidental overdose.
The psychological effects of methadone include insomnia, hallucinations, anxiety, depression, delusions and paranoia. The social effects include loss of interest in activities, avoidance of social activities and functions, increased stress and tension within the family and alienation from family and friends.
How to get help
It is important to note that Methadone addiction can debilitate your life quickly and thus, you should search for professional treatment programs. It is also necessary to understand that it is possible to develop complications if you stop using the drug without a professional help.
The withdrawal symptoms can take up to 5 weeks before they occur especially if you had taken large dosages of methadone and thus, you should not assume that you are not addicted if the signs fail to occur immediately you withdraw. The withdrawal treatment is a gradual long process depending on the level of dependency, and should be assisted with in an inpatient drug and alcohol treatment center.
Meth is one of the most addictive stimulant drugs in use in the world today. It is usually found in the form of a bitter-tasting, white, odorless crystalline powder. Some of the common names used to refer to meth include chalk, crystal, ice, stove top, speed, glass and crank. Meth is smoked, taken orally or injected into the body by dissolving it into alcohol or water. The drug is delivered fastest when smoked or injected.
A brief history of meth
It all goes back to the year 1887 when a substance called amphetamines was synthesized. This substance gave rise to the development of methamphetamine in the year 1919 in Japan. Initially, the drug was used to alleviate fatigue and bring about a feeling of alertness.
By 1930, meth was being used by doctors to treat narcolepsy and asthma. In world war two, soldiers used amphetamines to enhance their performance and fight off fatigue.
In 1970, the use of meth was made illegal for many of its uses. From then on, the distribution of the drug was under the control of American motorcycle gangs.
Meth statistics in the U.S
The National Institute on Drug Abuse reported that there were 440,000 meth users in the U.S. by the year 2012, which is 0.2% of the population.
They also stated that 85% of the meth used in the United States is produced in Mexican labs, only 15% is produced within the United States. According to reports by the American health department, there have been 73,000 methamphetamine related emergency cases throughout the United States. This constitutes 4% of all the drug related visits.
Risks of prolonged abuse of meth
Long term effects of meth include developing sores on the face or their entire body resulting from users picking at their skin due to thinking that there are bugs crawling on and their skin. Addicts have brown and rotten teeth.
They may experience delusions and hallucinations. Prolonged use of meth also leads to poor judgment which makes lead a risky lifestyle. In extreme cases, methamphetamine overdose causes the user’s body to overheat causing convulsions, collapse of the cardiovascular system and even death.
Social risks of meth use
Meth addicts prioritize the drug over any relationship or responsibilities they might have. This makes them indulge themselves in risky behaviors such as stealing and even risky sexual behaviors.
Meth addicts who have children tend to neglect and abuse them. They also have no sense of hygiene and therefore live in a dirty and harmful environment. They may leave dirty diapers, used syringes and drug paraphernalia all over the house. This makes people who were once close to these individuals stay away from them.
Ways of helping meth users
Currently, there is only one effective treatment is cognitive behavioral intervention. This is a series of methods that are geared towards modifying the patient’s behaviors, expectancies and the way they think. This is aimed at helping the individuals deal with stress triggers that they face daily.
Antidepressants are also used to combat the depression symptoms. In some cases, anti-anxiety drugs are used while neuroleptics are used to combat psychoses. If a person close to you is a meth addict, you should have them checked in in a methamphetamine rehab center to have them treated as soon as possible.
Marijuana is obtained from the leaves or flowers of the cannabis plant. Marijuana is known by a host of other street names including Indo, Herb, Green Goddess, Ganja and Dope. Here you will learn about marijuana addiction.
History of Marijuana
Marijuana is naturally eaten or smoked. Its effects from the initial dose may take a number of hours to disappear depending on the strength of the dosage. Marijuana addiction causes a number of symptoms which may not affect all the users.
Currently, marijuana ranks amongst the most commonly addiction drugs in several countries including the United States. Information from the National Household Survey on Drug Addiction shows that individuals addiction the drug regardless of age.
It also points out that 37% of Americans above the age of 12 have used the drug on at least one occasion. It is reported that marijuana use and addiction amongst high school-going teenagers is a major cause for concern among the health authorities, parents and teachers in the United States. Almost half of the high school going young people in America used marijuana on at least one occasion in the course of their lifetime.
Medical Risks of Prolonged Marijuana Abuse
Marijuana addiction is believed to cause less harmful symptoms, but they may prove fatal if the drug is addiction in conjunction with other dangerous drugs.
This is mainly because of the strength and nature of the drug. However, it is believed that extreme cases of marijuana overdose may result in death. This is where the user consumes more amounts of the drug than what is possibly enough for social reasons.
Marijuana addiction can result in severe physical and emotional complications such impaired memory, forgetfulness and respiratory problems. Other effects of marijuana addiction include high heart rate, panic and anxiety attacks.
Persons who take the drug on a periodic basis risk developing similar symptoms as those experienced by regular tobacco users including phlegm, cough, recurrent chest infections, and severe bronchitis. Moreover, since marijuana has carcinogens and toxins, users of this drug increase the risk for various types of cancer.
Social Risks of Marijuana Addiction
Even when used at low quantities, marijuana has the potential to impair coordination and attention because it directly influences the way the brain acts on information.
As a result of these effects, use of marijuana contributes to traffic, household, and job-related accidents leading to the harm to the user, family members and colleagues at work. Use of the drug in high quantities may cause hallucinations, loss of personality and misrepresentation.
How to Get Help
It is important to seek treatment if you or someone you are worried about is affected by the problems and challenges brought about by marijuana addiction. Generally, there are 5 key treatments of marijuana addiction. These are brief counseling, cognitive-behavioral therapy, psycho-education and specialized counseling.
Marijuana brief dependence counseling is typically a treatment plan that takes ten weeks and aims at helping affected individuals who may be reluctant in accepting that they already have a problem. It involves carefully evaluating the individual’s situation.
Treatment techniques such as cognitive-behavioral tools, case handling, skill enhancing, and aftercare maintenance are all very important. This kind of treatment does not entail the use of the idea put forward by the 12-step treatment program, but it encourages affected individuals to make appropriate choices concerning their lives.
If you think that you have a marijuana addiction problem, consider seeking professional treatment.
Heroin is an illegal substance that has been categorized as being one of the most addictive drugs on Earth. The drug is processed from morphine which is a naturally occurring substance that is extracted from the seed pod of poppy plants.
Heroin is typically sold as a brownish or white powder which has been combined or “cut” with powdered milk, starch, sugars and/or quinine. Some of the street names that this drug goes by include: smack, dope, black tar, H, brown sugar, chiva and birdie powder. If you or a loved one is abusing heroin keep reading to learn about heroin addiction.
Brief History Of Heroin
Heroin is typically referred to by historians as being “The Hundred Year Habbit” due to the fact that it was originally synthesized in 1889. Even though the drug was made commercially available as a cough medicine in 1889 it was originally synthesized by a company that goes by the name of Bayer, a company that is still within existence to this day.
During the early years of the 19th century, it was marketed as being an effective alternative for morphine and as such, was given to individuals for its cough suppressant and pain relieving abilities.
However, by 1906 it is believed that a quarter of the population of the United States at the time (72 million) was addicted to morphine, heroin and cocaine. Based on the fact that heroin addiction was blamed for a total of 260 murders that occurred in 1922 in New York, these concerns along with the high rate of addiction led the US Congress to ban all domestic manufacturing of heroin in 1924.
Heroin Addiction Statistics
Even though it has been over 90 years since the manufacturing of this drug was made illegal, it is estimated that there is over 900,000 heroin addicts within the United States. Some of the other alarming statistics surrounding heroin abuse include:
Heroin abuse accounts for 18% of all drug and alcohol treatment admissions.
93% of the world's opium supply originates from Afghanistan. 9.2 million people use heroin worldwide.
Heroin accounts for 4 out of 5 drug related deaths in Europe.
Medical Risks Associated With Prolonged Abuse
Due to the fact that heroin consumption occurs intravenously “needle,” people who become addicted to heroin are at a high risk for a variety of long term health effects and diseases as well.
For example, due to the fact that heroin users share needs, this can lead to the transmission of AIDS and other contagious infections as well. Additionally, frequent injections can lead to infections in the heart valves and blood vessels. Some of the long term effects that heroin usage has on the body include:
Reduced sexual capacity
Loss of memory
Inflammation of the gums
Social Consequences Of Heroin Addiction
The thing that's so detrimental about heroin abuse is that, not only does it lead to the manifestation of debilitating physical and psychological effects, it leads to a variety of social effects or in other words social consequences as well.
Due to the fact that prolonged heroin usage rewires the brain in a way that essentially causes the user to develop a lifelong addiction, the user continuously seeks heroin despite the consequences that they may endure. As such, prolonged heroin usage can negatively impact:
Heroin Addiction Treatment
Fortunately however, there are a wide variety of treatment options that are available to individuals who have become addicted to heroin. Some of those include:
Medication that is developed to treat opioid addiction, stimulate the same opioid receptors as heroin, but are safer and do not produce a “high” but rather, acts as a supplement that can effectively curb the individual's craving. The three types of medications that are utilized to treat heroin addiction include:
Behavioral therapies that treat heroin addiction can be delivered in a residential or outpatient setting. Statistics demonstrate that cognitive behavioral therapy in coordination with contingency management, can effectively treat heroin addiction, especially when it is used in conjunction with medication.
Crack, the street name for the chemically processed cocaine hydrochloride, causes a short term, and feeling of highness to people who use it.
Also known as rock, or paste, crack is the crystal form of cocaine that comes in powder or solid form. The crack cocaine is processed by condensing baking powder and cocaine and transforming it into a more potent form, which is smokeable or snortable.
When taken, it energizes the entire CNS and inputs damaging and destructive stresses on the lungs, heart, and the brain. It is associated with a dramatic deterioration of the quality of life of the addicted people. Smoking or snorting of the crack cocaine increases the heart beats.
The intoxication with cocaine makes a person hyperactive and demonstrates a high level of alertness. Once a person is addicted, the individual becomes agitated, uncomfortable, and irritable.
History of Crack
Today, crack cocaine is a very popular drug since it is cheap and also inexpensive to produce. According to use US Drug Enforcement Agency, a lot of cocaine was being shipped in the US by the late 1970s.
By the year 1986, the use of crackcocaine had spread across almost all the states. Since this time, the use of this drug has dramatically spread across the North and South America, Europe and the rest of the world.
According tothe European Monitoring Center for Drug and Drug Addiction, crack cocaine is second most used harmful and illegal drug in most European countries.
The research notes that over 7.5 million youths in Europe have taken cocaine during their lifetime. The same study shows that 3.5 million youth took cocaine in the past year and further 1.5 million in the previous month.
In the US, The National Surveys on Drug Use conducted on 2006 reports that over 8.6 Million Americans, 12 years and above, confirms to have used crack cocaine their lifetime. 6.9% of the sample tested said they had taken cocaine and crack a year ago.
According to the National Institute of Drug Abuse study conducted that was done in 2006, 8-5% of the high school students in the twelfth grade have used cocaine some point during their young lives.
Medical Risks of Prolonged Crack Abuse
The long-term use of crack and cocaine, results in a lot of medical complication including severe depressions, stroke, hallucinations, dilated pupils, paranoid behavior, irritability and mood disturbances.
Other effects may include psychosis, heart attack, respiratory failure, brain seizure, sexual dysfunction, infertility and even death in severe conditions.
Social Risks of Crack Addiction
Other social issues include Termination of Education, losing employment, divorce and separation, financial constraints and many other social problems.
After success recovery in the rehabilitation center, an individual resumes back to the normal life. People who are not addicted, they can start withdrawing step by step as they avoid provocative environments and friends.
Cocaine is a powerful narcotic that is extracted from coca leaves. Users can opt to snort, smoke (in this case crack cocaine) or inject it directly into the bloodstream. The Coca plant grows abundantly on the slopes of Mt. Andes, which is in the South America. The mountain slopes extend from Columbia, Peru and into Bolivia.
The mountain slopes extend from Columbia, Peru and into Bolivia. Its anesthetic capabilities were discovered in 1860 by the Spanish. In this article, we are going to learn about cocaine addiction.
History of Cocaine
Cocaine has many street names raging from Coke, Nose Candy, White Pony, Blow, Line, The Lady, Hard Rock, Snow, Dust, Cola, Flake, and the common Crack. The list is endless on the names cocaine is given.
Originally in 1886 Coca Cola included the leaves as an ingredient in the famous soft drink. This led to soaring sales of the soft drink due to its energizing effect it had on the drinker. Tonic and wine makers also include cocaine as an additive in their drinks in the early 1900's.
Cocaine laced drinks were available to drinkers of all social classes. By 1905, snorting cocaine was a popular and the effects of the use of cocaine became more evident in 1930's. There were more than 5000 cocaine related deaths in one year, and the drug was officially banned.
In the 70's cocaine emerged as a fashionable drug thanks to Hollywood producers and this soared its use in the U.S. Originally cocaine was a rich mans drugs but in the 80's these statistics changed as it was no longer considered as a drug for the wealthy.
Columbian drug controlled cocaine shipping into the U.S and by the early 1990's they were shipping 500-800 tons of cocaine into the U.S.
The U.S Federal Courts in 2007 released statistics involving suspects involved in cocaine-related crimes and found out that 5,477 individuals were involved.
More than 95% of the individuals were involved in trafficking cocaine. The U.S national survey released its findings in 2006 that 8.6 million U.S citizens aged above 12 have used cocaine. Spain has the highest rate of cocaine usage with 3% of the adult population indulging in cocaine use.
U.S follows Spain closely with a 2.8% of its adult population use Cocaine. Cocaine use is steadily rising in Europe as its the second most abused drug behind Cannabis.
Medical Risks of Prolonged Cocaine Abuse
Snorting, smoking and injecting cocaine has instantaneous results. Cocaine interferes with chemical transmitter/neurotransmitters in the brain. Cocaine blocks dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and other neurotransmitters being reabsorbed. This chemical results in the individual feeling high or euphoria.
When high on cocaine users feel more energetic, a sense of alertness, an extremely elevated mood and more superior. Prolonged use of Cocaine can damage the user's heart since cocaine increase an individuals blood pressure.High blood pressure can also damage its victims lungs.
Cocaine constricts blood vessels in the brain leading to seizures, stroke and trigger violent behavior. Snorting cocaine damages the user's nasal cavity and in some individual it irritates the lungs. Ulcers can also develop due the constriction of blood vessels in the stomach. Cocaine is also seen as an aphrodisiac.
Social Risks of Cocaine Addiction
Some of the social risks that cocaine users exhibit is violent behavior. Repeated cocaine use leads to tolerance to the drug, and an individual will have to increase their dosage. Typical cocaine withdrawal symptoms include fatigue, depression, craving for cocaine, tremors, chills and inability to feel pleasure.
Benzodiazepine is a drug used to help treat panic and anxiety attacks as well as insomnia. Very few people die from an overdose, the main problems caused from the drug are the effects it has on the mind.
History of Benzodiazepine
The drug became abused due to the fact that doctors felt since it was a safe drug there was no problem prescribing them to people. This meant that the elderly were getting them for some of their ailments and their grandchildren or children were taking them to abuse them.
Emedicinehealth.com says there are over 2000 different types of the drug and in the United States only fifteen of them have been FDA approved. They are the most commonly prescribed type of drug in the nation and come in the form of diazepam, clonazepam, and their easier to recognize names Valium and Klonopin.
According to a TEDS report on Addiction Hope's website 95 percent of the drug admissions reported abuse and 35% of all drug related visits to the ER were from benzodiazepines. These are some very scary statistics.
Medical Risks of Prolonged Benzodiazepine Abuse
There are several medical risks when taking the drug and it can be very damaging when mixed with alcohol. There are instances of people using it as a date rape drug mixed with alcohol because of the short-term memory loss it provides. It confuses the person taking it making them a target for sexual assault.
If used over a long period of time Benzodiazepines can cause addiction. Over time they can cause more memory loss to be more permanent. The person using might be aggressive or hostile towards those around them or have an increased excitement.
It can cause the loss of the ability to concentrate and drowsiness with vertigo and mental confusion. Some more symptoms include slurred speech, sedation, loss of appetite, and drowsiness.
Social Risks of Benzodiazepine Addiction
The social risks of the drug stem from the side effects. If people are often hostile and aggressive you don't want to be around them. The use of the drug can lead to depression which makes people want to stay in more and become less social.
Sometimes there is evidence of suicidal ideation after the abuse of the drug. When people become dependent on the drug it can wreak their bodies and their mental states. When they are in withdrawal they will have an increased heart rate, and their blood pressure will do up.
They are going to become more anxious as their body looks for the drug. Other withdrawal symptoms include cramps, sweating, depersonalization, muscle twitching, nightmares, and convulsions.
Geeting Free of Benzodiazepine
Some people have a hard time realizing the drug they've been subscribed for their health problems are addictive and harmful. When stopping the drug cold turkey you can have seizures and they can be fatal. Once someone has been addicted to the drug they need help to get off of it. Treatment needs to be administered by professionals and the individual needs to go to a drug detox center before going into rehab
Amphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant substance which provides an increased level of wakefulness, increased level of concentration, more energy, increased attention, improved mood, raised level of self confidence and sociability and a decreased level of appetite. The amphetamine drug has various knick names which include: Amp, blue belly, crank, white cross, and crystal.
Amphetamine was first formulated in Germany in the year 1887.It was mainly a synthesized formulation which was not meant for any specific disease.
A research was done and in the 1920s it was proved that amphetamine was a great cure and preventive medicine to various diseases such as: radiation sickness, alcoholism, epilepsy, schizophrenia, migraine, various head injuries and opiate addiction treatment.
Amphetamine was later used to cure various diseases such as the central nervous system disorders, asthma, narcolepsy, low blood pressure,nasal congestion as well as hay fever between 1927 and 1937 when it was noted that it greatly helped patient diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to increase their concentration and performance levels.
It became illegal act to obtain amphetamine in the United States Of America without being prescribed by the doctor in 1965. The controlled substance act made the production of inject-able amphetamine illegal in 1970. Amphetamine abuse was mainly noted in the military to keep the American soldiers awake during the Vietnam and second world war.
According to a research carried out in 2006 by the United States department of health and family services a population of 20.4 million of American citizens aged above twelve years used amphetamine without any medical prescription.
According to a research carried out in one of the famous general hospitals in USA between 1975 and 1987 it was clear that 25% of all the seizures were caused by the use and abuse of amphetamine.
HEALTH EFFECTS OF PROLONGED AMPHETAMINE ABUSE
Amphetamine is a strong drug whose prolonged usage may lead to various illnesses such as: stroke, malnutrition, sexual dysfunction, various skin problems and disorders, fainting, general body weakness, memory loss, dilation of pupils, irregular sleep patterns, increased aggressive behavior, hypothermia, changes in brain function, cardiovascular problems, restlessness, seizures, increased weight loss, changed brain structure, blood shot eyes, heart attack, speech difficulties, hallucinations, deep depression, liver damage, possible impotence, rapid heart rate, weakened heart, extreme level of hunger, intense anxiety, exhaustion, psychosis, coma, breathing difficulties, diminished intelligence and mental efficiency, ulcers and eventually may lead to loss of life.
SOCIAL EFFECTS OF AMPHETAMINE ABUSE
The person how has abused amphetamine for a long period of time may have the following social effects: loss of friends and relatives, loss of their career, loss of the homes, reduced performance at work, lack of concentration in school leading to bad grades, arguments in relationships which lead to divorce and family break ups, decreased level of self esteem, become reclusive as well as loss of financial stability and status.
AMPHETAMINE ADDICTION TREATMENT
Addiction to amphetamine can be caused by its abuse or prolonged use as prescribed by the doctor.The best help for addiction treatment is usually offered in amphetamine addiction centers commonly referred to as recovery detox.It is possible to stop taking amphetamine and leave a drug free and sober life.
Ambien, a brand name for Zolpidem, is part of a medication class known as sedative-hypnotics. Normally, it is prescribed to treat difficulty in falling asleep or staying asleep (insomnia). Once the drug is taken, it slows the brain activity, causing you to fall and maintain
History of Ambien
It started with the search for an effective sleep aid a long time ago. There were many other drugs out there which could act like a sleep aid, but most of them tended to have hangover-like effects the day after. This is where Ambien came in; it was discovered to be capable of inducing sleep without these after-effects.
Some street names that people use to refer to Ambien include; No-Go pills’, Zombie pills’ and A-minus’. Ambien clinical trials were accomplished in 1991, whereby it was made available to consumers.
In 2007, FDA approved the manufacturing of generic form of Ambien, increasing its availability to consumers. However, this wider availability increased the rates of Ambien addiction.
Ambien misuse or abuse started when people started taking it outside the parameters prescribed by the doctor, and decided to take it to feel high’.
Taking it without prescription, overdosing, injecting, inhaling or taking it for another purpose can be termed as drug misuse or abuse. If it is taken for an extended period of time, even if it is under prescription, it becomes a habit whereby one becomes dependent on the drug.
According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 500,000 people in the US are currently abusing Ambien.
Medical risks of prolonged Ambien abuse
Ambien Dependence– Taking or abusing Ambien for a prolonged period may make the body and brain become tolerant to it. This would require you to take more than the required dose so as to feel the desired effects. This causes your body to be dependent on Ambien in a way that you have to take it, for your body to function normally.
Allergic reaction such as swelling of tongue, throat, lips and face and difficulty in breathing and swallowing.
Other characteristics of Ambien Abuse:
Feeling drugged’, daytime drowsiness, dizziness and weakness
Altered reasoning and judgment
Loss of coordination Hallucinations
Nausea, stomach upset, diarrhea and constipation
Muscle pain and headacheWorse cases may lead to liver or heart failure, stroke or even death
Social risks of Ambien addiction
Ambien addiction may go beyond physical complications, to include emotional, psychological and social damage and pose social risks such as:
Failure to fulfill work, home, or school obligations
Loss of jobs
Dropping out of school
Substance use while involved in hazardous situations such as operating machines and driving
Being involved in drug-related arrests
Ambien abuse treatment
If you are undergoing damaging consequences of Ambien abuse, you need to undergo a treatment. The process of Ambien detoxification can cause many withdrawal symptoms such as cravings, nervousness, convulsions and insomnia, requiring one to be under a supervised setting during treatment. The addicts should not stop taking it immediately but rather taper off the drug for better results.
Services available for patients in medical facilities include: medication therapy, behavioral therapy and counselling. They could be outpatient or inpatient facilities.
A holistic approach to Ambien addiction treatment in a rehab center involves mustering medical personnel from various fields such as counselors, therapists, psychiatrics, physicians, social workers and nurses. Procuring the services of these personnel will give the patient a lasting recovery.